As the names suggests, remote viewing (RV) is the act of viewing or seeing things at a distant place you regardless of the constraints of space and time without your ever having been to this distant place. RV is an umbrella term covering extrasensory perception (ESP) abilities such as clairvoyance, clairaudience, precognition, and postcognition.
According to Courney Brown of the Farsight Institute: "Remote viewing is a psi-based mental process... The term “remote viewing” was used by the United States military in defense-related research projects from the 1970s through much of the 1990s. Probably because of this, the term appears to have developed a permanent place in the public’s vocabulary of psychic phenomena. However, remote viewing can mean different things to different people. It typically involves the ability of a person to perceive and describe some thing or place that is separate from him or her in space and/or time... remote viewing is not limited to visual information. Some scientists have desired to use other more general terms to describe psi functioning, such as Dr. Edwin May’s recent and useful coining of the term “anomalous cognition.” Nonetheless, the term “remote viewing” is likely to remain the term most widely recognized by many people as referring to the apparently psychic ability to describe distant places and events.1"
As with any extra sensory perception in parapsychology, there is no standardized theory of remote viewing. Courtney Brown of the Farsight Institute mentions the "physics of the soul" in REMOTE VIEWING: The Science and Theory of Nonphysical Perception, in passing (with no further pursuit within the single chapter offered). In regards to quantum entanglement (i.e. subatomic / energetic resonance of information between bodies at a distance), she refers to further papers published at the Farsight Institute website. Other institutes wherein she refers in chapter one of REMOTE VIEWING, have similar theories about "spooky action at a distance."
Collective DNA Consciousness refers to possible theories from clinical studies of psychic energy from quantum microtubules to macro scopic levels such as ball lightning; it seems that DNA is able to affect the behavior of photons (containers for information as well as energy), all things relative, since light behaves as a wave in a relativistic vacuum. Please see the english extract from "Vernetzte Intelligenz" (Networked Intelligence) by Grazyna Gosar and Franz Bludorf:
Now that we are fairly stable in our individual consciousness, we can create a new form of group consciousness, namely one, in which we attain access to all information via our DNA, without being forced or remotely controlled about what to do with that information. We now know that — just as on the internet — our DNA can feed its proper data into the network, can call up data from the network, and can establish contact with other participants in the network. Remote healing, telepathy or "remote sensing" about the state of relatives, etcetera, can thus be explained. Some animals know also from afar when their owners plan to return home. That can be freshly interpreted and explained via the concepts of group consciousness and hypercommunication.
Any collective consciousness cannot be sensibly used over any period of time without a distinctive individuality. Otherwise we would revert to a primitive herd instinct that is easily manipulated... Hypercommunication in the new millennium means something quite different: Researchers think that if humans with full individuality would regain group consciousness, they would have a god-like power to create, alter and shape things on Earth!..
When we look further upon Collective DNA Consciousness, there is a discussion on the link between DNA as an organic superconductor, wormholes, and vacuum domains (e.g. ball lightning). As you might know, these three phenomena are capable of storing or delivering tremendous amounts of energy and information. Quantum entanglement at our DNA level is possible if this is true and even more likely at the microtubule level. Therein, "god-like power to create, alter and shape things on Earth" for those who are groomed and trained in austere principles of psychic research doesn't seem so far fetched.
Classical ancient texts provide the most eclectic theories to our connections with the universe. Theories from ancient eastern and middle eastern methods of healing and internal alchemy also prove palpable. For example, Yves Requena, author of "Character and Health: The Relationship of Acupuncture and Psychology" offers insight on the cosmic model of Traditional Chinese Medicine:
..This ancient point of view is similar to that of contemporary scholars. As is the universe, the Taoists felt, so is humankind. We are made up of matter, thus of void and Qi, which bring form and substance. As a form, man represents a specific field that is distinct from the rest of the universe. The Qi flows through this field within the network of meridians. During circulation, the Qi gives rise to the primary metabolisms. We are a part of the void, however, we are linked to the integral field of the universe, and our relationships with the environment and with the rest of the world are thus inseparable...
... the Chinese intuitively perceived the similarity between the structure of humans and that of the universe. With the spirit of analogy that is inherent in their way of thinking, they related the warp and weave of the universe to the smallest of objects. The Taoist concept of intimate bonds and synchronicity between all objects in the universe, and particularly of humankind with the rest of the cosmos, was without doubt at the origin of their cosmological approach to physiology...2
In terms of the "metaphysics of the soul," Judaic Studies in mysticism are esoteric, but with surprising correlations to modern and ancient eastern theories of parapsychology. Donald Tyson, author of Tetragrammaton, The secret to Evoking Angelic Powers and the Key to the Apocalypse provides this insight:
The creation-destruction double helix of the Name resembles closely the serpent staff of Hermes.
The mystical staff with its two united and intertwined snakes coiling around it has from ancient times represented life, the bringing forth of being from nothingness. It used to be believed that snakes entwined in this intimate manner were mating... The staff of hermes is a two-dimensional physical representation of a transcendent intellectual action that flows forth unceasingly from the mind of the Creator.
It would be closer to the fundamental reality if the model were made in three dimensions. Then it would consist of two helical pathes twining up an invisible central axis and, in fact, would like very much like the molecular models of DNA. It is no coincidence that the building blocks or "bases" of DNA, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, are four in number. This correspondence is inevitable because the basic patterns of being replicate themselves endlessly on all levels of manifestation, both mental and physical... In the same way that the molecular pattern of a crystal is revealed by its gross shape, so is the mental pattern of the creating Mind of the universe exhibited in the structure of the genetic coding of life...3
The premise of replicating patterns throughout the universe from micro to macro levels are ubiquitous to ancient as well as modern studies of life. This premise may be familiar to you if you have also studied the Golden Ratio or Phi from the Fibonacci Sequence wherein each number equals the sum of the previous two (e.g. 1,2,3,5,8...). Modern science has already discovered that the Phi Ratio applies at the DNA level and beyond. Ancient megalithic cultures built the pyramids, stonehenge, dolmens, supulchers, menhirs, and more as a reflection of the phi ratio within their minds. In a manner of speaking, megalithic societies were creating, altering, and shaping things on earth in a "god-like," mysterious ways.
Within replicating patterns there is resonance. Where there is resonance within replicating patterns throughout the universe, information can be shared, no matter the distance. However, the Phi Ratio infers more specifically to form rather than function, ergo, resonant structures would serve as a conduit for further resonant functions. In the case of psychic energy, the resonant function would be psionic in nature.
Each and every one of us already has the ability to do remote viewing. Because most of us were never encouraged to develop our latent psychic abilities when we were children, it is more usual to start to learn remote viewing as an adult. In order to start remote viewing, you have to shift your consciousness to tune your brainwaves to the proper harmonic frequencies (mid-delta to low theta); it takes practice, but every person can do it.
This means that you too can use remote viewing; it just takes some practice; before long, you'll be able to use this ability at will. The important thing is to be patient with yourself. Just as with any other skill, it takes some time and effort to become good at remote viewing.
Given the above theories, yes. This ability has been proven in strict scientific studies such as Stanford Research Institute International and is being used in certain legal and crime departments where the law makers often take the help of such people who have the capacity of remote viewing to solve a lot of crimes.
Ed Dames and his time of remote viewers are most famous in the crime solving realm. Stephan Schwartz has studied the RV under scientifically controlled conditions and discovered that RV does not use any electromagnetic component, but an "information field." This information field has been called the "matrix" by Gerald O'Donnell who has enhanced RV training to include remote influencing. There are a host of other groups all over the world doing different forms of RV.
Numerous countries have made use of remote viewing for their government security and safety reasons, for many years, although their practices have since been terminated, taken off the record, declassified and provided for public knowledge. Interestingly, their studies tell us that many of their test participants were individuals who had no knowledge that they had an innate ability of remote viewing.
Since a large amount of (unclassified) statistical data has been generated through years of research, remote viewing has been studied as more of a scientific rather than a super natural phenomenon, hence its scope of development has increased as well. To understand further how remote viewing works we also need an understanding of neuroscience which will be explained in another section.
Remote viewing is similar to other disciplines in that the more you practice, the better you become at the exercise. You must practice remote viewing on a regular basis just as you might practice on a musical instrument or martial arts. As we work towards achieving and developing remote viewing, we also enhance our natural talents for psychic and paranormal experiences.
The mind must become tranquil and still before focusing intensely on a thing, place or person that is in a different location from where we are located. Remote viewing is the capability to see, view or perceive something at a distance; You may have done this already wherein you find yourself doing something similar to what you dreamed the next day in the physical world. This experience can induce feelings of déja vous.
In the course of your practice, you will find that you exhibit greater strengths in certain areas of your psychic senses just as you have a greater aptitude at one or more of your physical senses. Remote viewing branches into areas of post-cognition, clairvoyance, and pre-cognition wherein you will find your strongest physical senses providing you with data. With time and practice, your intuition allows you interpret the data as opposed to analytical overlay, a cognitive bias.
You need to start with mind control self discipline techniques.
Meditation and visualization techniques are the first step in your efforts to learn remote viewing. These techniques will relax your mind and body, preparing you for the kind of out of body experience which remote viewing involves. Being able to meditate and relax while visualizing your goals will help you learn remote viewing more quickly.
One of my favorite sites for testing psychic potential is Got Psi. The battery of tests are rudimentary and provide a statistical analysis of your potential to give you an idea of your personal strengths as far as your psychic senses.
If you Decide to take a full fledged, guided meditation RV course like the ones from the Academy of Remote Viewing and Remote Influencing, then you will be guided step by step through the necessary meditative exercises to achieve the delta state or "mental level delta" as Gerald O'Donnell says it. When you visit the ARVARI site, you can download free mp3 samples for your personal enjoyment while achieving altered states of consciousness.
Images improve over time as you gain more experience in remote viewing. The more you sustain your altered state of consciousness within delta patterns, the clearer your RV sensations become. When you make a point of noticing everything you can about whatever you sense as you tune in a particular place, then mentally recording sensory imagery becomes a subconscious habit.
From my personal experience, RV comes to me in the form of lucid dreams; this may be true for most people. In the RV respect, it's a matter of observing your target using your self control as a third party observer rather than controlling the images you see.
For example, I once lost a whole set of identification cards including state, government, and medical I.D.s; they were all together in a wallet. First I imagined any number of scenarios wherein I could have lost the wallet; that was my analytical overlay or sense of logic. Then I let all of those "logical" images go and simply focused on one particular aspect wherein one card is made of metal; I know the name and number on this card, but I focused on the shape and substance of this card as I went into "mental level delta." I recall flashes of images that came to life somehow as the word "metal" for some reason coalesced in my thoughts.
Whereas my sense of logic told me that I had lost the wallet some where on a street as I was digging around for my cellphone, I awoke with a sudden impulse to look in my clothes hamper; this made no sense because I don't recall putting the wallet anywhere near this clothes hamper, yet I dug deep anyway. Lo and behold, I found the wallet deep within the folds of clothes. Interesting. I had lost the wallet a few days prior, but the wallet was under at least a week of dirty clothes. Go figure.
Any colors, patterns, shapes and textures that appear to you while you are remote viewing should be given equal attention to their details. A pencil and pad of paper are handy while you are remote viewing so you can sketch out any images that you see. This will also become a resourceful learning aid for you, but this is all up to your personal strengths. Your kinesthetic impulse may simply be to "go there."
If you are visually oriented, the images may be overly large, too small, or even two dimensional until you put things in perspective by viewing from the correct distance and angle. Depending on the objective, you may latch onto images that make no sense because they only represent clues like pieces of a large puzzle. This is where group remote viewing sessions are necessary.
You will gain a better understanding of that which you view in your sessions when you practice remote viewing on a regular basis. Remember to record your experiences of remote viewing. As you explore the various aspects of remote viewing, you will find that recording your experiences is most helpful. Recording your development in your remote viewing journal will aid you in various ways to learn more about yourself, your world and remote viewing.
You can visit any period in the past or future as well as the universe when you are remote viewing. With practice, it is much easier for you to tap into the information field or the "matrix." Some people call this a "universal mind" which sees everything, every where, throughout time; We are tapping into the Mind of God, since we have revelations with each experience. For some people, RV is a spiritual experience.
Remote viewing requires the expenditure of mental energy on your part, so when you use this ability, you may feel a bit tired afterwards. It's important to pace yourself and work your way up to longer and more difficult remote viewing sessions.
RV can be taxing on an individual like any other discipline, so it's good to be in shape and to take B vitamins with natural antioxidants which tend to get expended during stress.
The best way is to learn from experienced remote viewers. Another RV training device is the use of binaural beat audios. These types of audios can help you to align your brainwaves to the correct frequency of remote viewing. More information can be found on this subject at Binaural Harmonics in brainwave entrainment where you can also find tools to design your own entrainment sessions. Brainwave entrainment has scientifically proven results. Let's examine a few key aspects of human psychobiology.
The universe revolves around the concept of frequencies and their forces. In fact, according to radionics principles, every point in space and time has a unique vibratory rate of resonance. When an object matches that particular vibratory rate, there is an instantaneous resonant connection. The psionics aforementioned within RV theory are radionics of the mind. Binaural Harmonics in brainwave entrainment discusses the different frequencies of the Schumann (geophysical) Resonance to which our brainwaves become entrained to the state we know as the alpha rhythm. As you know, human kind has accomplished extraordinary mind control feats under controlled psychoenergetic studies as discussed at Collective DNA Consciousness. The human brain can be tuned (disciplined) in such a way that it is able to perceive entrainment frequencies and follow them even when they lie outside the five senses.
For Every consistent frequency pattern that our senses detect, our neural patterns tune in through the frequency following response, so we experience sympathetic neural activity. The binaural beat audio for remote viewing is geared specifically to inducing the necessary neural patterns within your brainwaves.
This recording will start off by getting you into the mid delta range whereby you will be blessed with the opportunity of remote viewing, and will continue to get you into delta followed by low theta (6 to 8 cycles per second) - this is a very smooth and tranquil cycle that you will feel no hassles when you are into it.
You float between Mid-Delta and Low Theta Rhythms. You know how I discussed the way Schumann Resonant Waves on this planet entrain our brainwaves at Binaural Harmonics? 7.83 cycles per second is the average of the frequency range which we recognize as the Alpha Rhythm which happens to be the first octave of Schumann Geophysical Harmonics on this planet. Similarly on detecting the alpha frequency we are entrained towards the Alpha Rhythm wherein we relax with a tendency for creative focus, daydreaming, or meditation.
The harmonics for remote viewing is at a mid delta level (one to four cycles per second). The delta rhythm is the lowest frequency range of neural patterns; we are usually in a deep, dreamless sleep in the delta state, so it's difficult to wake up. How can we possibly remote view if we are unconscious? Good question.
That is why we specifically say that the optimum frequency level for remote viewing is mid delta level where the mind has not gone into slumber but can be activated for the remote viewing. This altered state of consciousness is a highly receptive, hypnotic state; the only suggestions that work on an individual in this state are the ones that come from within the individual. Part of RV training is pre-programming oneself to RV a target.
According to the Scientifically Controlled Research of Stephan Schwartz, he says this is an "information field" which is scalar in nature since there is no electromagnetic component involved during RV, not even extremely low frequencies (ELF signals).
Gerald O'Donnell refers to this information field as the "matrix" which is all pervading throughout the universe, contains all information and performs as an information conduit.
Dr. William Tiller in his psychoenergetic experiments refers to this "matrix" as higher gauge symmetry (i.e. the primordial cosmic functions which led to our form) which contains information not only of our higher consciousness, but our original bioenergetic life patterns that we draw upon for revelation and optimum health, respectively.
Stewart Swerdlow, one of the psychics from the Montauk Project, calls this higher gauge symmetry "The 9," computerized mind patterns that monitor humans in physical reality, but unlike anything we understand as computers or artificial intelligence at this point in our human culture.
We're not omitting the Mind of God or calling the Mind of God a computer. What we're saying with all the evidence so far as that there are many levels of consciousness throughout the universe. That part which resonates with delta and theta rhythms seems to be a universal, all pervading primordial cosmic information matrix that has existed since before the physical universe which is based upon it.
Just as there are many levels of energy from the sub-atomic to the heavenly scale, many levels of animal consciousness, many layers to a planet and an atmosphere, there are also many levels of consciousness in this universe. Each consciousness is, in one way or another, a reflection of the One Universal Mind according to the Holographic Paradigm and Nature's Mind: The Quantum Hologram; it's a complex universe and we're a living, special variation of it because we are conscious of ourselves.
The universal layer of consciousness known as the "matrix" resonates in the delta rhythm of human consciousness.
A lot of people will say that the brainwave entrainment remote viewing binaural recording is superior to any kind of hypnosis or guided meditation. The problem with these opinions is that they're right; there are too many "hypnotists" out there who are just plain awful at hypnotic induction, but they think they're great at it. Small wonder that most people advocate brainwave entrainment.
If you read my article, Brainwave Entrainment vs. Hypnosis: We Need Both, then you know that I advocate a combination because the entrainment is the carrier wave for the guided meditation. Entrainment bypasses judgemental heuristics that stand in the way of proper relaxation. An example is my own HealingMindN Meditation (when you follow the instructions).
In an ideal world, we would include brainwave entrainment with guided meditation; actually, Gerald O'Donnell DOES include brainwave entrainment with his guided meditation, remote viewing courses, so you actually view a target during training. Gerald doesn't want us to use simple audio entrainment as a crutch. He helps to train you at subconscious levels, so you can still learn while sleeping and take that lesson with you in your waking state, so it becomes second nature. Gerald wants us to walk away from the course fully equipped.
In contrast, the remote viewing binaural recording from Unexplainable is all about entraining you, but without the instruction AND it's already in the form of an mp3, so you can download and use it right away in any mp3 player.
The advantage of this recording is that the session ends with the alpha frequency; this induces you to go into a state of relaxation, so you are completely refreshed and relaxed! The disadvantage is that you are more likely to fall asleep using only binaural delta rhythm brainwave entrainment.
The best time to use the remote viewing binaural recording is when you simply want to relax and focus on other things or have a restful sleep while your brainwaves are entrained in mid delta rhythms. Your for RV would be increased, but the exact methods of RV would be cloudy.
There are people with natural psychic abilities who simply need the extra push. If you're one of those people, then a binaural recording is all you need. You can even find a package entrainment deal on Remote Viewing, ESP and Telepathy.
The Unexplainable Store is now giving away a wonderfully relaxing and powerful sample of their unique brainwave entrainment technology. Try their sample downloads offered at each page.
In contrast, you must follow instructions for a guided meditation course. You are still relaxed, but your focus is on the guided meditation. Here are the advantages of a guided RV meditation course:
Imagine - you will soon be walking around in a permanent state of increased bilateral Theta or Delta brain waves like a Zen or Yoga Master, in fearless joy because you will have mastered the superpowers of the Mind and be consciously creating-as-you-go your reality!
How would you like to be able at any time to:
We are and remain the only Mind Training Institute world wide to have broken the barrier of deep Theta and Delta brainwave states as we train our students to Remote View and Remote Influence reality from these very deep levels of mind with FULL conscious awareness.
The Academy of Remote Viewing and Remote Influencing, a pioneer in the influencing thought and reality fields, has offered since 1997 to well over 100,000 students worldwide these unique, highly-energized, life-changing, manifestation techniques.
To our knowledge, no other systems of meditative discipline and mind/awareness expansion techniques exists anywhere else on this planet that takes you relatively rapidly to such highly beneficial and ground-breaking gateways where your whole being is transformed and evolved into a new and higher human form where you can achieve a high connection with your higher self
Among some of the experiences our large proportion of trainees have reported are:
In the sleep state ALL human beings rest as their brain centered linear-thinking-mind lowers its electrical activity to below 4 cycles per second. The brain is then only vibrating at a low hum and stops filtering in awareness the Higher Mind and overlaying it with our own thoughts. At that level of quiet and barely active linear mind we are entering the Universal Mind and lose our individual consciousness (we go into unconscious sleep).
In 1996, as the cold war died down many teams of highly specialized former psychotronic military and intelligence agents came out in the open, in the US and in both Western and Eastern Europe, and started to disclose the operation of mind-to-events and mind-to-mind covert operations in which they had been involved.
In the dark era of paranoid psy warfare between the Western and the Eastern block, very sophisticated and brilliant scientific minds had been gathered in the West in order to breach the ultimate frontier of mind/matter and affect mind-to-event viewing (Remote Viewing and Sensing which means the ability to view/sense remote events and remote locations in the screen of your own mind) and try to increase our ability to Remotely Influence present or future events (life manifestation) and people (telepathy) through mind power alone. Much technological gadgetry was tried and sometimes used.
The "secret" of manifestation was being applied in a twisted manner, as it happens with most of man's illusory temporal dreams for conquest and power.
Nevertheless, great strides were being achieved at the same time, and success was noted and recorded, although . All Remote Viewing and Remote Influencing operatives' successes were carefully monitored and recorded using highly sophisticated scientific devices.
Many different and then classified training protocols and modalities were and implemented in inducing more or less successfully these supermind states and feats.
One particular event noted as an interesting by-product of successful remote viewing was the fact that remote viewers would usually show on brain encephalographic electrical-brainwave recording machines a pattern of theta slow waves (4 to 7 cycles per second usually indicative of a very relaxed and quiet mind state) while successfully remote viewing distant targets or remote influencing events. Nothing much was made out of it in the US as most scientists were bent on finding and detecting "physical" external mind waves in the ether and not looking inside of each of us.
Major General Stubbelbine (ret.), former head of US Army intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) stated in one of his recorded speeches at an event sponsored by the International Association for New Science, Denver, Colorado, May 22-25, 1992. (In response to a question about the mental state of military intelligence remote viewers during Intelligence Gathering Remote Viewing Sessions):
"Completely passive, totally passive, obviously, as a state of mind, the individual's state of mind, heavily Theta. For those of you who understand brain waves, it's a Theta brain wave state of mind that they are in.
We've actually measured some of them and they are very heavy in the Theta brain wave arena, but it is totally passive as far as I can tell, there is no active instrument other than the mind that is accessing the information.
The second thing is, do they go into a trance? Well, I think [we] mentioned we measured some of them and they are in a Theta brain wave state."
~ Major General Stubbelbine (ret.), former head of US Army intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)
In 1995 a small group of former viewers started to operate in the public arena as the CIA and DIA declassified most of its Remote Viewing information to the general public.
William Ross Adey, M.D. 1922-2004, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, Los Angeles, wrote in the 50's about the relationship between the deep Theta state 4.5 cps and the ability to Remote Influence others. In his pioneering work, Dr. Ross Adey determined that emotional states and behavior can be remotely influenced merely by placing a subject in an electromagnetic field.
By directing a carrier frequency to stimulate the brain and using amplitude modulation to shape the wave to mimic a desired EEG frequency, he was able to impose a 4.5 CPS theta rhythm on his subjects. Although he used physical protocols (microwave radiations) to induce such a state and achieved results, he never could really give an explanation as to WHY this deep meditative brain state and its associated physiological brainwave state were needed to achieve success.
Although the deep Theta phenomenon was scientifically recorded and duplicated, no one gave a logical and coherent explanation as to why this stage of mind epiphenomenally associated with 4.5 CPS brainwaves was inducing such extra-ordinary mental abilities.
For until now, few have really understood and especially integrated the fact that we are still, at a very deep level of mind, the collective unconscious which, as a subpart of the Universal One, takes care of ALL of humanity at once.
In 1997 many former Western psy operatives and scientists were now sharing some insight on the recently declassified very mechanical protocols favored by the intelligence establishment. Many news organizations, radio shows, and TV documentaries extensively reported on what appeared to the general public to be a very exotic topic formerly reserved to the realm of science fiction and X-Files shows.
We then came out also in the open, and revealed in 1997 a totally different approach. We openly declared that the "secret" to Remote Viewing lies in the ability of successfully .
At this level of reduced brainwave activity the 'conscious' human mind can access information originating from the Cosmic Collective Unconscious Mind. Our Remote Viewing course trains anyone to do so.
Internationally renowned Gerald O'Donnell (BS Mathematics, MS Computer Science, MBA), former Western intelligence agency Remote Viewer and founder of The Academy of Remote Viewing and Remote Influencing, is a visionary in mind- consciousness research. He is now dedicating his life to skillfully inspiring and guiding students through healing and empowering meditations on Oneness to access incredibly high levels of creative energy that allow for the rapid manifestation of desires based upon one's thoughts. He resides in Southern Florida.
1REMOTE VIEWING: The Science and Theory of Nonphysical Perception; Courtney Brown; Farsight Institute; pp. 30-31.
2Character and Health: The Relationship of Acupuncture and Psychology; Yves Requena; Paradigm Publications; pp. 5-6.
3Tetragrammaton, The secret to Evoking Angelic Powers and the Key to the Apocalypse; Donald Tyson; Llewellyn Publications; p. 20.
Content Curation by Randolph Fabian Directo